Guava which belongs to family Myrtaceae, genus Psidium is another tropical fruit tree in my home garden. The given scientific name is Psidium guajava. It is another type of berry fruit; which means it is consist of small seeds within the edible flesh. This is an ideal example of tropical fruit plants. Guava favors the tropical environment, but it can be grown in cold climates with some intended care and protection. Let’s see how to grow guava in the tropical home garden.
As any other tropical fruit cultivation, we should consider about the location, soil, irrigation, fertilization, pruning, propagation and climate when decide to grow tropical guava.
Guava Cultivation: Where should I cultivate?
First, you should choose a proper land to grow guava. The chosen land should compose of rich organic soil with good drainage. Also, I prefer you to choose a land which gets good sunlight because tropical fruits such as guava prosper growth in proper drainage, rich soil, and sunlight which implies the tropical gardening.
Guava Cultivation: Propagation Techniques
Tropical guava either can be propagated by seeds or by using vegetative propagation. The problem in guava seed propagation is that it will not lead to a true breed. However, seed propagation can be used to produce rootstocks for the future purpose of grafting. You can collect seeds from fresh guava fruits. Collected seeds can be soaked in water to get rid of remaining flesh on seeds. You can boil the seeds to soften the outer layer encouraging germination which takes approximately 8 weeks.
Tropical guava can be propagated vegetatively by using either cuttings, marcotting (air layering), or bud grafting.
Propagation by cutting
Simply cutting off the shoots for some inches with pruned leaves will be rooted in a moistened soil after a few weeks.
Propagation by marcotting (air layering)
Marcotting which is much faster than propagation by normal cutting can be achieved by removing a ring of the bark tissue at the shoot base. Layering it with some growth regulatory hormones (which enhance root growth) and rich soil with some sealing will make it ready to grow your tropical tree.
Propagation by budgrafting
Budgrafting which is the most common method used in tropical guava propagation results in higher yield and success with compare to other propagation techniques.
- As mentioned above, you can prepare a rootstock with guava seeds.
- You can let three seeds germinate in one poly bag to ensure one of the seeds will grow into a rootstock.
- Once the stem at the bottom is thick enough, it is all good to start budding.
- Now, you can cut the guava rootstock bark and bud it with similar size scion with the support of budding tapes.
- Three weeks after grafting budding tapes can be removed and you can check whether it has survived.
- Again rootstock can be cut off in order to stimulate bud to break.
- A few months later it can be transplanted into the desired field.
As a result of my research on what is the best budgrafting method for the tropical guava, I recommend you to read about The Forkert modified patch budding technique here.
Guava Cultivation: The Forkert Modified Patch Budding Technique
- First, choose a guava bud stick and cut off the leaves to prepare it (2 weeks before the next step).
- Eradicate the pre-prepared fresh bud stick and cut a patch around a well-developed bud on it (ideal dimensions for cutting: 15mm wide, 25mm long, use a curved blade razor budding knife).
- Peel it off carefully using the blade or your fingers.
- With same dimensions or wider, back peel a patch on the stock bark.
- Slide the patch of bark containing the bud under the flipped scrap on the stock bark.
- Cut off 2/3 of the bark flap to make it easier to hold the bud patch in place.
- Finally, wrap and overwrap the patch bud tightly in a spiral manner as near the bud as possible using a piece of the transparent vinyl plastic band.
To ensure the success of using The Forkert method; do the final step as soon as possible without harming the bud. And let the bud be exposed.
Guava Cultivation: Pruning
To produce an awesome bushy tropical guava plant in your home garden, you better prune your tree time to time. You can prune the water shoots and suckers from the rootstocks. You can trim the baby guava plant stem back to about 50 cm above the ground at a point just below a bud. We can let few lateral shoots to grow after pruning a young plant. Then we can prune the grown shoots (branches) to form secondary branches which will bore fruits. Pruning is highly favorable for tropical home gardens to grow small, strong bushy guava plants which are easier in harvesting. Also, pruning will speed up the guava flowering.
The flowering and fruit maturing depend on the climate and how you propagated it. To get the best flavor you can leave it to ripen on the tree itself. Or else you can pluck it when half-ripen and leave it to ripe with a ripe banana in a bag.
Guava Nutritional facts
This aromatic tasty tropical fruit is rich in Vit C and a bunch of more nutrition. Guava is composed of other vital vitamins, electrolytes, minerals and phytonutrients. Also, it is rich in dietary fibre which is good for our health.
Having a tropical guava plant will beautify your garden while giving you free nutrition.